Discover ways to write scalable iOS code utilizing the VIPER structure with some MVVM and MVC tips and coordinators in thoughts.


Swift design patterns and iOS architectures

A software program design sample is principally a generic template of find out how to remedy a specific – however often native – state of affairs. Achitectural patterns have greater impression on the entire codebase, they’re excessive stage generic templates. Please bear in mind one factor:

there isn’t a such factor as a nasty structure

The weapon of choise solely depends upon the state of affairs, however you recognize every little thing is relative. Let’s stroll by way of all of the iOS design patterns and architectures actual fast and begin studying VIPER. ๐Ÿ

Swift design patterns

Let’s begin with the fundamentals, proper? If we do not get into UIKit, we will discover that there are a lot of design patterns invented, perhaps you recognize a few of them already. However hey, since we do not have that a lot time and I would like to speak about VIPER, let’s try the essential precept of constructing UIKit apps utilizing the MVC sample.


The Mannequin-View-Controller (Huge-View-Controller) sample is a primary idea. You’ve often an enormous UIViewController subclass that controls all of the views and collects each mannequin that wanted to be displayed for the tip person. For instance you name an API endpoint utilizing URLSession or Alamofire from the controller, do the response knowledge validation and formatting then you definitely implement your desk or assortment view delegates on the view controller, so principally all the applying logic goes inside that single overstuffed depressing view controller class. Does this ring a bell for you? ๐Ÿ™„


After realizing the issue, the very first thing that you are able to do is outsourcing the information reworking or binding half to a sepearate class. That is how the good individuals at Miscrosoft invented the Mannequin-View-ViewModel structure sample. Now you are one step nearer, your knowledge fashions and the views can have their “get collectively” on an entire new stage inside shiny new recordsdata far-far away from controller land. Nonetheless this sample won’t clear up all of the leftovers contained in the view controller. Do not forget that you continue to should feed the view controller with knowledge, deal with all of the totally different states.


What if we transfer out all the information loading and presentation stuff from the view controller and put it into a brand new class magically known as the Presenter? Sounds good, the view controller can personal the brand new presenter occasion and we will stay fortunately ever after. C’mon individuals we should always actually rename this to the Most Precious Sample ever! ๐Ÿ˜‰

The Coordinator sample

Say good day to The coordinator by Soroush Khanlou. Or ought to I merely name this because the Inverse Mannequin View Presenter sample? Look, right here is the deal, coordinators are on an entire new stage inside this evolution progress, however in addition they have an excessive amount of to do. It is in opposition to the Single Accountability precept, as a result of now you need to handle the presentation context, the information storage, the routing and all of the differnet states inside coordinators or sub-coordinators… however, lastly your view controller is free from all of the leftover baggage and it may well focus instantly on it is job, which is? ๐Ÿ™ƒ

To be fucking dumb.

Presenting views utilizing UIKit associated stuff, and forwarding occasions.

I do not hate the design patters from above, I am simply merely attempting to level out (in a humorous / sarcastic method) why VIPER was born on the primary place. ๐Ÿ˜…

Are you continue to with me? ๐Ÿ˜ฌ

The VIPER structure

To begin with DO NOT consider that VIPER is dangerous, simply because somebody misused it. I believe it is a freaking superb structure! You simply should study it correctly, which is difficult, due to the shortage of fine tutorials. Everyone seems to be evaluating architectures, however that is not what individuals ought to do. So far as I can see, an MVP is nice for a small app with just a few screens, you need to by no means use VIPER for these apps. The actual downside begins when you app grows and increasingly elements get into the sport.

In case you are planning to write down a small app, simply begin with MVC. Afterward you’ll be able to repair the huge view controller downside with MVVM, however if you wish to take it one stage additional you’ll be able to all the time use MVP or the coordinator sample to maintain maintainability. Which is totally wonderful, till you understand in the future that your code is filled with utility courses, managers, handlers and all of the nonsense objects. Sounds acquainted? ๐Ÿ˜…

As I discussed this earlier than there isn’t a such factor as a nasty structure. There are solely dangerous decisions, which lead us to hardly maintainable codebases. So let me information you thru essentially the most helpful design sample that you’re going to ever need to know with a view to write truely scalable iOS functions: VIPER with module builders = VIPER(B)

Understanding VIPER

The VIPER structure relies on the one accountability precept (S.O.L.I.D.)) which leads us to the idea of a clear structure. The core elements or for example layers of a VIPERB module are the next ones:


It is the interface layer, which suggests UIKit recordsdata, largely UIViewController subclasses and all the opposite stuff. Views do not do something that is associated to enterprise logic, the’re only a presentation and occasion forwarding layer which is utilized by the presenter. As a result of the view is only a pure view controller, you should use MVVM rules or knowledge managers to make your venture much more concise.


The interactor is liable for retrieving knowledge from the mannequin layer, and its implementation is totally impartial of the person interface. It is necessary to keep in mind that knowledge managers (community, database, sensor) are usually not a part of VIPER, so they’re handled as separate elements (companies), coming outdoors from the VIPER module land and they are often injected as dependencies for interactors.

The Interactor can put together or remodel knowledge, that is coming from the service layer. For instance it may well do some sorting or filtering earlier than asking the right community service implementation to request or save the information. However keep in mind that the Interactor doesnโ€™t know the view, so it has no concept how the information ought to be ready for the view, that is the function of the Presenter. ๐Ÿ™„


UIKit impartial class that prepares the information within the format required by the view and take selections primarily based on UI occasions from the view, that is why generally it is referred as an occasion handler. It is the core class of a VIPER module, as a result of it additionally communicates with the Interactor and calls the router for wire-framing (aka. to current a brand new module or dismiss the present one).

It is the one class that communicates with nearly all the opposite elements. That is the ONLY job of the presenter, so it mustn’t know something about UIKit or low stage knowledge fashions. Mainly it is the center of the applying, or some would say it is the place the place all of the enterprise logic will get carried out. ๐Ÿ’œ


Plain mannequin courses used largely by the interactor. Often I am defining them outdoors the VIPER module construction (within the service layer), as a result of these entities are shared throughout the system. We may separate them by module, however often I do not like that strategy as a result of eg. all of the CoreData fashions might be generated into one place. Similar factor applies in case you are utilizing Swagger or the same device.


The navigation logic of the applying utilizing UIKit courses. For instance in case you are utilizing the identical iPhone views in a iPad software, the one factor that may change is how the router builds up the construction. This lets you preserve every little thing else, however the Router untouched. It additionally listens for navigation move modifications from the presenter, so it’s going to show the right display if wanted. Additionally if you should open an exterior URL name UIApplication.shared.openURL(url) contained in the Router as a result of that is additionally a routing motion, the identical logic applies for social media sharing utilizing UIActivityViewController.

Additionally if you need to go knowledge between VIPER modules it seems like a proper place to do that within the router. I often talk between two module utilizing a delegate sample, so I picked up this behavior of calling delegate capabilities within the router. ๐Ÿ“ฒ


Some persons are utilizing the router to construct the entire module, however I do not like that strategy. That is why I am all the time utilizing a separate module builder class. It is solely accountability is to construct the whole module through the use of dependency injection for all of the extenal companies. It could actually additionally construct mock or different variations of the identical module. That is fairly useful if it involves unit testing. Completely is smart. ๐Ÿ‘

NOT every little thing is a VIPER module

For instance if you wish to create a generic subclass from a UIViewWhatever please do not attempt to stuff that into the elements above. You need to create a spot outdoors your VIPER modules folder and put it there. There will probably be some use instances with particular courses which can be higher to not be VIPERized! ๐Ÿ˜‰

Providers and software particular code

I often have 3 separate layers in my functions. Modules, companies, and app. All of the VIPER modules are sitting contained in the Modules folder. The whole lot that is community or knowledge associated goes to the Providers folder (api service, core knowledge service, location service, and many others.) and in a while will get used within the module builder relying the present setting (for instance mock implementation for testing).ย All of the remaining stuff like view subclassess, and different UI associated objects, app particular styling or design clever issues are positioned contained in the App listing.

write VIPER code?

I can not emphase sufficient how necessary is to study this structure earlier than you begin utilizing it. I consider that issues can go actual dangerous if somebody misunderstands VIPER and begin placing view logic in a presenter for instance. For those who had a earlier dangerous expertise with VIPER, take into consideration this quote: do not blame the device, blame the carpenter (simply as Ilya Puchka properly stated on a twitter dialog). ๐Ÿ”จ

Each single part will simply get into the appropriate place when you observe the foundations of VIPER.

Module era

By no means begin to create a VIPER module by hand, you need to all the time use a code generator, as a result of (sadly) you will want plenty of boilerplate code for every module. That appears fairly unlucky at first sight, however that is what provides the true energy of this structure. All members of your developer group will know the place to search for if a particular difficulty happens. If it is a view difficulty, you need to repair the view, if it involves a navigation downside then it is a router downside.

There are numerous current code generator options (one of many famoust is generamba), however I made my very own little Swift device for producing VIPER modules. It is fairly rattling light-weight, nevertheless it’s actually heplful (it makes use of templates with a view to generate a brand new module) i am calling it: VIPERA. (Hungarian title of the viper snake… haha ๐Ÿ˜‚)

You simply should clone / obtain the repository & run swift run set up --with-templates with a view to make it work. Any longer you’ll be able to merely run vipera MyModule to generate a brand new module primarily based on the default template. As a second argument you’ll be able to go your personal template listing title (you’ll be able to create your personal template below the ~/.vipera folder, or you’ll be able to change the default one too).

The anatomy of the bottom template is fairly easy, I am not creating subfolders for every layer, however I am separating the interfaces and the default implementation in other places. That offers me a bit of little bit of sanity, as a result of a lot of the VIPER templates appeared to be very deterrent simply due to the venture construction.

Naming conventions

Protocols are outlined for nearly each VIPER part. Each protocol will probably be prefixed with the module title, and it will not have another suffix besides from the layer title (like MyModuleRouter, MyModulePresenter).

Default implementation is used for the essential situation, each protocol implementation follows the ModuleName+Default+Layer naming conference. So for instance MyModuleDefaultRouter or MyModuleDefaultPresenter.

Inter-module communication utilizing delegates

The move is one thing like this:

Router / Presenter

The presenter can ship occasions for the router utilizing the router protocol definition.

Presenter / Interactor

The interactor can notify the presenter by way of the presenter’s interface, and the presenter can name the interactor utilizing the outlined strategies contained in the interactor protocol.

Presenter / View

The view often has setter strategies to replace it is contents outlined on the view protocol. It could actually additionally notify the presenter of incoming or load occasions by way of the presenter protocol.

Information switch between modules

Think about a listing, you choose an merchandise and go to a brand new controller scene. You must go at the very least a singular indentifier between VIPER modules to make this potential.

It is often accomplished considerably like this:

  • The view calls the didSelect methodology on the presenter with the id
  • The presenter forwards the id to the router utilizing the routeFor(id) methodology
  • The router calls the builder to construct a brand new module utilizing the id
  • The builder builds the brand new module utilizing the id
  • The router presents the brand new module utilizing it is view (controller)
  • The brand new module passes the id for everybody who wants it (router, presenter)
  • The brand new module’s presenter will get the id
  • The brand new module’s interactor hundreds the information and provides it for the presenter
  • The brand new module’s presenter provides the information for the view and presents it
  • Element display seems with correct knowledge.

In case you are presenting a controller modally you can even go the unique router as a delegate, so you can shut it correctly if it is wanted. ๐Ÿ˜Ž

Reminiscence administration

Lengthy story quick:

  • The builder holds noone.
  • The router retains a weak reference of the view and the presenter.
  • The presenter holds the router and the interactor strongly
  • The interactor retains a weak refernece of the presenter
  • The view retains a robust refernece of the presenter
  • UIKit holds the views.

You need to verify this within the offered instance, no leaks – I hope so –ย every little thing will get launched good and easily after you return or dismiss a module. ๐Ÿคž

Ultimate conclusion: ought to I study VIPER?

Though VIPER is very criticized due to it is complexity, all I can say it is definitely worth the effort to study its priciples correctly. You will see that there are far more advantages of utilizing VIPER as a substitute of ignoring it.


  • Simplicity – for giant groups on advanced tasks
  • Scalability – simultaneous work seamlessly
  • Reusability – decoupled app elements primarily based on roles
  • Consistency – module skeletons, separation of considerations
  • Readability – Single obligations (SOLID)
  • Testability – separated small courses, TDD, higher code protection
  • Interfaces – module independence, nicely outlined scopes
  • Bug fixing – simpler to trace points, find bugs and issues
  • Supply management – smaller recordsdata, much less conflicts, cleaner code
  • Simple – codebase seems to be related, quicker to learn others work


  • Verbosity – many recordsdata per module
  • Complexity – many protocols and delegates
  • On-boarding – lack of correct VIPER data
  • Engagement – VIPER is dangerous, as a result of it is advanced, meh!

I made a follow-up article about VIPER finest practices that I’ve study alongside the journey, yow will discover the pattern repository on github. I hope that these tutorials will enable you to study this structure higher, in case you have any questions, be happy to contact me on twitter. ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ’ป

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